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The word iceberg is derived from the Dutch word "ijsberg" which means the "Ice Mountain".
An iceberg is a mass of freshwater ice that has broken off (calved) from a glacier or ice sheet,
near the edge of the land. Icebergs are found floating in the seas, especially in the Polar regions
i.e. around Greenland near the North Pole and Antarctica around the South Pole. Icebergs are usually
formed during spring and Summer seasons, when the weather is warm and ice starts melting.
The icebergs of the Antarctic are far more abundant and much larger in size than the Arctic
icebergs. Antarctica produces 90% of the world's icebergs.

Icebergs
Ice floats on water because it is less dense than water. However only 1/5th of an iceberg shows
above the waterline. The remaining portion is submerged in water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Try for yourself- Fill a cup with water up to the brim and freeze it. Then place the block of ice in the
same amount of water. You will see the ice floats on water. Also check how much portion of the ice
is above the waterline and how much is below

 

 

 

Icebergs differ widely in shape and size. They are tabular (flat topped like a table) rounded or irregular
(pinnacled or pyramidal) in shape. They also vary widely in sizes.
Small pieces less than 7ft in dimensions) are called BRASH ICE. Large pieces(7-10ft in dimensions)
are called GROWLERS. Larger pieces (up to 16ft in dimensions are called BERGY BITS.
Pieces larger than the above are called ICEBERGS. Icebergs can be hundred of km long and wide.

The largest iceberg ever sighted was in 1965. It was 335 km.(208 miles) long and 97 km (60 miles) wide,
about the size of Belgium. The iceberg was floating in the Ross Sea off Antarctica.

These icebergs can weigh millions or billions of tons. They are driven away from the shore by winds and
ocean currents. They break up slowly and melt.

Bigger icebergs can last for 4-5 years on average or sometimes more. These large floating icebergs can
sometimes pose a threat to ships and big ocean liners. It was an iceberg that sank the British ocean liner
"Titanic" in 1912.

After the Titanic several countries have set up the "International Ice Patrol" which keeps an eye on
these icebergs. Icebergs are however also proving to be very useful. Scientists are using icebergs to
study past and present climate changes. They are being used to monitor "global warming".

In view of shortage of water for drinking and irrigation in many parts of the world, towing of icebergs
to locations where water is needed most has been seriously considered.

However the difficulties involved in the process have not been solved so far.

 
Questions.
1)What are icebergs?

2)Where are icebergs mainly found?

3)What different shaped do icebergs show?

4)When was the biggest iceberg sighted?

5)What are scientists using icebergs for ?